Diabetes Mellitus And Litchi糖尿病与荔枝
检索式：(Hyperglycemia OR Diabetes) AND Litchi
题名：Oligonol, a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee peel, attenuates diabetes-induced pancreatic damage by inhibiting inflammatory responses via oxidative stress-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling.
作者：Park, CH;Park, KH;Hong, SG;Lee, JS;Baek, JH;Lee, GI;Heo, JW;Yokozawa, T
摘要：This study investigated the effects of oligonol, a low-molecular-polyphenol derived from lychee peel, against diabetes-induced pancreatic damage via oxidative stress-induced inflammation. Oligonol was orally administered at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and the rats were compared with nondiabetic and diabetic control rats. The diabetic rats showed loss of body weight and increased pancreatic weight, and the oral administration of oligonol attenuated these parameters. Moreover, the administration of oligonol caused a significant decrease in the serum glucose level and a significant increase in the serum and pancreatic insulin and C-peptide levels in the diabetic rats. Oligonol also significantly reduced the enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, which are oxidative stress biomarkers, in the serum and pancreas. Oligonol treatment reduced the overexpression of phospho-p38,phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), NF-κBp65, and NF-κBp65-induced inflammatory protein such as cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, oligonol treatment led to significantly attenuated histological damage in the pancreas. On the basis of these results, we conclude that a plausible mechanism of oligonol's antidiabetic action may be its antioxidative stress-related anti-inflammatory action.
题名：Annona muricata Linn. leaf as a source of antioxidant compounds with in vitro antidiabetic and inhibitory potential against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, non-enzymatic glycation and lipid peroxidation.
作者：Justino, AB;Miranda, NC;Franco, RR;Martins, MM;Silva, NMD;Espindola, FS
摘要：Annona muricata leaves are used in traditional medicine to manage diabetes mellitus and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential in vitro antidiabetic properties of Annona muricata leaf by identifying its main phytochemical constituents and characterizing the phenolic-enriched fractions for their in vitro antioxidant capacity and inhibitory activities against glycoside and lipid hydrolases, advanced glycation end-product formation and lipid peroxidation. Ethanol extract of A. muricata leaf was subjected to a liquid-liquid partitioning and its fractions were used in enzymatic assays to evaluate their inhibitory potential against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase, as well as their antioxidant (DPPH, ORAC, FRAP and Fe2+-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation assays) and anti-glycation (BSA-fructose, BSA-methylglyoxal and arginine-methylglyoxal models) capacities. In addition, identification of the main bioactive compounds of A. muricata leaf by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was carried out. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions showed, respectively, antioxidant properties (ORAC 3964 ± 53 and 2707 ± 519 μmol trolox eq g-1, FRAP 705 ± 35 and 289 ± 18 μmol trolox eq g-1, and DPPH IC50 4.3 ± 0.7 and 9.3 ± 0.8 μg mL-1) and capacity to reduce liver lipid peroxidation (p < .01). Also, EtOAc and BuOH, respectively, inhibited glycation in BSA-fructose (IC50 45.7 ± 13.5 and 61.9 ± 18.2 μg mL-1), BSA-methylglyoxal (IC50 166.1 ± 21.6 and 413.2 ± 49.5 μg mL-1) and arginine-methylglyoxal (IC50 437.9 ± 89.0 and 1191.0 ± 199.0 μg mL-1) assays, α-amylase (IC50 9.2 ± 2.3 and 6.1 ± 1.6 μg mL-1), α-glucosidase (IC50 413.1 ± 121.1 and 817.4 ± 87.9 μg mL-1) and lipase (IC50 74.2 ± 30.1 and 120.3 ± 50.5 μg.mL-1), and presented lower cytotoxicity, when compared to the other fractions and crude extract. Various biomolecules known as potent antioxidants were identified in these fractions, such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids, procyanidins B2 and C1, (epi)catechin, quercetin, quercetin-hexosides and kaempferol. This study presents new biological activities not yet described for A. muricata, which contributes to the understanding of the potential effectiveness in the use of the A. muricata leaf, especially its polyphenols-enriched fractions, for the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications.
主题词：Glycation End Products/糖化产物
题名：Lychee seed extract protects against neuronal injury and improves cognitive function in rats with type II diabetes mellitus with cognitive impairment.
作者：Tang, Y;Yu, C;Wu, J;Chen, H;Zeng, Y;Wang, X;Yang, L;Mei, Q;Cao, S;Qin, D
出处：Int J Mol Med.2018V41N1:251-263
摘要： Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and has many beneficial effects such as modulation of blood sugar and lipids, antioxidation, antivirus and antitumor. Studies have indicated that type II diabetes mellitus(T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease(AD) share common biological mechanisms including insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, β amyloid(Aβ) formation, oxidative stress and presence of advanced glycation end products(AGEs). The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed extract(LSE) on neuroprotection, cognitive function improvement and possible underlying mechanisms in a rat model of T2DM with cognitive impairment. We analyzed the chemical profile of LSE using a UHPLC SPD chromatogram and evaluated its effect on the improvement of spatial learning and memory of rats by a Morris water maze. The levels of glucose, insulin, Aβ, AGEs, Tau protein and acetylcholinesterase in the blood and/or hippocampus of rats were determined by blood glucose meter, radioimmunoassay, chemical chromatometry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. Results demonstrated that LSE consists of eight major and around 20 minor ingredients, and it remarkably prevents neuronal injury and improves cognitive functions in T2DM rats. The levels of glucose, insulin, Aβ, AGEs and Tau protein were significantly increased in the blood and/or hippocampus of T2DM rats, while LSE remarkably decreased their levels compared to vehicle treatment (P<0.01). The possible mechanisms may be associated with IR improvement and decreased formations of Aβ, AGEs and Tau protein in the hippocampus of T2DM rats. LSE may be developed as the agent for the treatment of T2DM and/or AD clinically.
题名：Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) peel flour: effects on hepatoprotection and dyslipidemia induced by a hypercholesterolemic diet.
作者：Queiroz, ER;Abreu, CMP;Rocha, DA;Sousa, RV;Fráguas, RM;Braga, MA;César, PHS
出处：An Acad Bras Cienc.2018V90N1:267-281
摘要： Dyslipidemias are associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hepatic steatosis, being the cause of morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the effects of lychee peel flour (PF) on serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), triacylglycerols (TAG) and various parameters related to obesity, in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Therefore, 20 male rats were used. In the first 21 days, the animals were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet, except for control group. In the following 21 days, their diets were modified, and they received a standard diet (Control); hypercholesterolemic (Hyper); hypercholesterolemic + 5% PF (PF5) and hypercholesterolemic + 10% PF (PF10). The results revealed that PF intake attenuated weight gain, reduced body mass index, glucose and the levels of TAG, TC, LDL-c, hepatic enzymes and leptin, besides the percentage of hepatic lipids, liver lipid peroxidation and frequency of severe steatosis. Histological studies of the aorta did not show the formation of the atheromatous plaque. These results reinforce its potential to reduce the risk of diseases associated with obesity.
题名：Systemic Perturbations of Key Metabolites in Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated by Polyphenol Extracts from Litchi chinensis Seeds.
作者：Man, S;Ma, J;Yao, J;Cui, J;Wang, C;Li, Y;Ma, L;Lu, F
出处：J Agric Food Chem.2017V65N35:7698-7704
摘要：Our previous research obtained Litchi chinensis Sonn. seeds extract (LSE) which showed hypoglycaemic effects on type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats. In order to understand the detailed pathogenesis of diabetes intervened by LSE, the metabonomics strategy was used. As a result, LSE decreased the insulin resistance index and the levels of glucose in urine through elevating the mRNA level of insulin, while decreasing the expression of glucagon to enhance the function of the pancreas. Meanwhile, LSE regulated the glucose and fatty acid metabolisms via increasing the expression of glucose transporter (Glu) 2, Glu4, insulin receptor (IR), and IR substrate-2 (IRS2). LSE effectively restored the impairment of the IRS2/PI3K/Akt/mTOR insulin signaling in the livers. All in all, LSE played a pivotal role in the treatment of T2D through regulation of broad-spectrum metabolic changes and inhibition of the glycogenesis, proteolysis, and lipogenesis in T2D rats.
主题词：type 2 diabetes/2型糖尿病
题名：Delayed progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy by Litchi chinensis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
作者：Kilari, EK;Putta, S
出处：Cutan Ocul Toxicol.2017V36N1:52-59
摘要：CONTEXT:The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aqueous fruit pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis (APLC) on parameters which leads to diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. OBJECTIVE:The objective of the study is to evaluate the APLC for in vivo antioxidant activity and its role in inhibiting the polyol pathway and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). MATERIALS AND METHODS:The diabetic animals were treated with L. chinensis for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress by protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and polyolpathway by aldose reductase (AR) in lens homogenates, alterations in protein carbonyl content (PCO) and AGEs in both serum and lens the APLC-treated diabetic rats were compared against diabetic control rats. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp bio microscope and classified into four stages. Fundoscope test and retinal histopathology were done for assessing retinopathy. RESULTS:Statistically significant reduction in glucose, and elevation of protein content, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and decreased levels of AR and PCO in lens homogenate and significant reduction in AGEs serum and lens homogenate were observed. Slit lamp examination, fundoscope, and histopathology showed improvement in retinal changes in APLC-treated rats compared to diabetic control animals. CONCLUSION:The treatment with APLC found to delay the progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy, which might be due to its antioxidant activity, because of the presence of active phytochemicals in APLC.
题名：Hepatoprotective Properties of a Polyphenol-Enriched Fraction from Annona crassiflora Mart.?Fruit Peel against Diabetes-Induced Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress.
作者：Justino, AB;Pereira, MN;Peixoto, LG;Vilela, DD;Caixeta, DC;de Souza, AV;Teixeira, RR;Silva, HCG;de Moura, FBR;Moraes, IB;Espindola, FS
出处：J Agric Food Chem.2017V65N22:4428-4438
摘要：A polyphenol-enriched fraction from Annona crassiflora fruit peel (Ac-Pef) containing chlorogenic acid, (epi)catechin, procyanidin B2, and caffeoyl-glucoside was investigated against hepatic oxidative and nitrosative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Serum biochemical parameters, hepatic oxidative and nitrosative status, glutathione defense system analysis, and in silico assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) of the main compounds of Ac-Pef were carried out. Ac-Pef treatment during 30 days decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities, as well as hepatic lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and nitration, inducible nitric oxide synthase level, and activities and expressions of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. There were increases in antioxidant capacity, glutathione reductase activity, and reduced glutathione level. ADMET predictions of Ac-Pef compounds showed favorable absorption and distribution, with no hepatotoxicity. A.?crassiflora fruit peel showed hepatoprotective properties, indicating a promising natural source of bioactive molecules for prevention and therapy of diabetes complications.
题名：Oligonol, a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit, protects the pancreas from apoptosis and proliferation via oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
作者：Park, CH;Lee, JY;Kim, MY;Shin, SH;Roh, SS;Choi, JS;Chung, HY;Song, YO;Shin, YS;Yokozawa, T
摘要：We have identified the effects of oligonol, a low-molecular polyphenol derived from lychee fruit, on diabetes-induced pancreatic damage via oxidative stress. Oligonol was orally administered at 10 or 20 mg (kg d)(-1) for 10 days to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, and we assessed the changes in the serum glucose and insulin levels, as well as those of body weight and food and water consumption. In addition, analyses of the weight, insulin content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and western blots of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-4 (Nox-4), p22(phox), p47(phox), phosphor-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), Bax, cytochrome c, caspase 3, pancreatic-duodenal homeobox (PDX-1) and cyclin E were also performed in the pancreas. However, these unfavorable outcomes under diabetes were reversed by oligonol administration. Oligonol treatment led to significantly attenuated histological damage in the pancreas. In conclusion, this study suggests that oligonol protects the pancreas from Bax and PDX-1 via oxidative stress for the prevention or delaying of diabetes mellitus.
题名：Low-molecular-weight polyphenols protect kidney damage through suppressing NF-κB and modulating mitochondrial biogenesis in diabetic db/db mice.
低分子量多酚通过抑制NF-κB和糖尿病db / db小鼠调节线粒体生物保护肾脏损害。
作者：Liu, HW;Wei, CC;Chang, SJ
摘要：Hyperglycemia, increased inflammatory responses, and dysregulation of mitochondrial function accompanied by type 2 diabetes may eventually lead to kidney damage. We examined the protective effects of oligonol, a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit and green tea, on kidney damage in diabetic db/db mice. Dietary oligonol supplementation lowered glucose and insulin levels and improved oral glucose tolerance. Oligonol attenuated serum resistin and IL-6 levels and reduced glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial matrix expansion caused by diabetes. Oligonol reduced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Suppressed renal oxidative stress by oligonol was associated with stimulated sirtuin1 expression and restored AMP-activated kinase protein α activity, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and mitochondrial biogenesis associated genes including nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A. In conclusion, oligonol reduced fasting glucose level, improved insulin sensitivity, suppressed inflammatory responses, and upregulated metabolic regulators involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby leading to protection against diabetes-induced kidney damage.
题名：Effect and Mechanism of Litchi Semen Effective Constituents on Insulin Resistance in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
作者：Li, CQ;Liao, XB;Li, XH;Guo, JW;Qu, XL;Li, LM
出处：Zhong Yao Cai.2015V38N7:1466-71
摘要：OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of Litchi Semen Effective Constituents (LSEC) on insulin resistance (IR) in rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus(T2DM), and to explore its mechanism.
METHOD:T2DM models in rats with IR were induced by high-fat feeding combined with streptozocin, then the rats were randomly divided into four groups: model group, LSEC high-dose group (1. 87 g/kg), LSEC low-dose group(0. 47 g/kg) and rosiglitazone group(3. 87 x 10(-3) g/kg), blank group was established as control. After medication for four weeks, effects of LSEC on glucose or lipid metabolism and insulin resistance were investigated, histopathology and ultrastructure changes of pancreatic tissues were observed,Stem-loop Real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR was used for evaluation of GRP78 mRNA and CHOP mRNA levels in pancreatic tissue of rats.
RESULT:LSEC of high-dose group obviously improved fasting blood glucose, serum TG level and glucose tolerance in T2DM rats (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). ISI was increased, HOMA-IR index was decreased, histopathology change of pancreatic tissue were alleviated, damaged organelle, such as endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were repaired in both groups of LSEC. Expression levels of GRP78 mRNA of both groups of LSEC and CHOP mRNA of high-dose group in pancreatic tissue were obviously lower than those of model group (P <0. 01).
CONCLUSION:LSEC can improve glycolipid metabolism and IR, increase insulin sensitivity to cure T2DM, its effects may be attributed, at least in part, to inhibit the expression of GRP78 mRNA and CHOP mRNA.
题名：Oligonol, a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit, attenuates gluco-lipotoxicity-mediated renal disorder in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.
Oligonol是一种来自荔枝果实的低分子量多酚，可减轻2型糖尿病db / db小鼠的糖 - 脂毒性介导的肾脏疾病。
作者：Park, CH;Noh, JS;Fujii, H;Roh, SS;Song, YO;Choi, JS;Chung, HY;Yokozawa, T
出处：Drug Discov Ther.2015V9N1:13-22
摘要：Oligonol is a phenolic product derived from lychee fruit extract containing catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins, produced by a manufacturing process which converts polyphenol polymers into oligomers. These proanthocyanidins have been reported to exhibit beneficial bioactivities in many studies, and so oligonol, a rich source of polyphenol, is expected to show favorable effects on various chronic diseases. This article summarizes recent work whether oligonol has an ameliorative effect on diabetic indices and renal disorders associated with gluco-lipotoxicity-mediated oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in db/db mice with diabetes. Oligonol was able to improve diabetic indices, prevent the development of diabetic renal disease, and preserve renal cells and the renal morphological structure via the attenuation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-induced oxidative stress, inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) generation, and prevention of apoptosis-induced cell death in db/db mice, being independent of changes in the body weight or serum glucose levels. The present study provides important evidence that oligonol exhibits a pleiotropic effect, representing renoprotective effects against the development of diabetic complications in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.
主题词：Glycation End Products,/糖化终产品
题名：Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Annona muricata (Annonaceae), aqueous extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
作者：Florence, NT;Benoit, MZ;Jonas, K;Alexandra, T;Désiré, DD;Pierre, K;Théophile, D
摘要：ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The leaves of Annona muricata are used in Cameroon to manage diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant activities and the potential toxicity of aqueous extract of Annona muricata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Oral administration of Annona muricata aqueous extract (100mg/kg or 200mg/kg) was studied in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In long term treatment, 2 weeks after streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, animals received plant extract during 28 consecutive days. For a protective effect, extract was administered 3 days prior to streptozotocin exposure and animals were observed 2 weeks without treatment. RESULTS:The plant extract was not effective in normal rats. In diabetic rats, single administration of the extract significantly reduced blood glucose levels by 75% and 58.22% respectively at the dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg as compared to the initial value. Treatment of normal rats 3 days prior to diabetes induction showed that, Annona muricata extract has no effect within 72h following STZ injection. However, after 14 days post-treatment, the extract at the dose of 100mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels as compared with initial value and diabetic control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of pancreatic β-cells of diabetic rats treated with the dose of 100mg/kg expressed strong staining for β-cell compared to diabetic control. In a long-term study daily administration of Annona muricata aqueous extract for 28 days to diabetic rats, reduced blood glucose levels, serum creatinine, MDA, AST, ALT activity, and nitrite levels LDL-cholesterol. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, SOD, and CAT activity contents were restored. CONCLUSION:These different results show that the antidiabetic activity of Annona muricata aqueous extract can be explained by its hypolipidaemic effect, its antioxidant and protective action on pancreatic β-cells, which in turn improve glucose metabolism.
题名：Efficacy of Annona squamosa L in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and collagen during wound repair in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
作者：Ponrasu, T;Suguna, L
出处：Biomed Res Int.2014V2014N:124352
摘要：The aim of this work was to find out the effects of Annona squamosa on the formation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen during wound healing in normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes induced rats were segregated into 4 groups, each containing six animals. Groups I and III served as the normal and diabetic control while groups II and IV served as normal and diabetic treated. The animals were treated with 200 μL of Annona squamosa extract topically. The granulation tissues formed were removed on the 8th day and the amount of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen formed was evaluated by sequential extraction and SDSPAGE, respectively. Histological evaluation was also carried out using Masson's trichrome stain. In vitro wound healing efficacy of A. squamosa in human dermal fibroblast culture (HDF) was also carried out. The fibroblasts treated with varying concentrations of A. squamosa were examined for proliferation and closure of the wound area and photographed. A. squamosa increased cellular proliferation in HDF culture. The granulation tissues of treated wounds showed increased levels of glycosaminoglycans (P < 0.05) and collagen which were also confirmed by histopathology. The results strongly substantiate the beneficial effects of A. squamosa on the formation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen during wound healing.
题名：Aqueous extract of Annona macroprophyllata: a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor.
作者：Brindis, F;González-Trujano, ME;González-Andrade, M;Aguirre-Hernández, E;Villalobos-Molina, R
出处：Biomed Res Int.2013V2013N:591313
摘要：Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α -glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α -glucosidase with an IC=1.18mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K(i) = 0.97mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K(i) = 0.79mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature.
主题词：Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors*/糖苷水解酶抑制剂*
题名：Polypharmacy (herbal and synthetic drug combination): a novel approach in the treatment of type-2 diabetes and its complications in rats.
作者：Kaur, R;Afzal, M;Kazmi, I;Ahamd, I;Ahmed, Z;Ali, B;Ahmad, S;Anwar, F
出处：J Nat Med.2013V67N3:662-71
摘要：The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Annona squamosa with Glipizide in a high fat diet and streptozocin-induced type-2 diabetes. Nine groups (n = 6) of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study, with. Basal blood glucose, urine volume, and body weights were measured and the rate were kept on a high fat diet. After 15 days, streptozocin in sub-diabetic dose (35 mg/kg) was administered to the animals to induce diabetes. With 1 week of consistent hyperglycemia, treatment was initiated. Aqueous extract of Annona squamosa was administered orally at 350 mg/kg body weight alone and in combination with reduced and reducing dose combinations of Glipizide. Blood glucose, body weight, urine volume were measured every 10th day. The elevated blood-glucose level in diabetic rats was controlled better with combination therapy compared with the synthetic drug alone or the herbal stand-alone drug. All the results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). A combination of Annona squamosa along with Glipizide may be helpful in dose reduction of Glipizide up to 50%, reducing the risk of the onset of insulin therapy.
题名：Annona montana fruit and leaves improve the glycemic and lipid profiles of Wistar rats.
作者：Barbalho, SM;Soares de Souza, Mda S;dos Santos Bueno, PC;Guiguer, EL;Farinazzi-Machado, FM;Araújo, AC;Meneguim, CO;Pascoal Silveira, E;de Souza Oliveira, N;da Silva, BC;Barbosa, Sda S;Mendes, CG;Gon?alves, PR
出处：J Med Food.2012V15N10:917-22
摘要：Species of the family Annonaceae has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant in tropical regions of South and North America and in Africa. Annona montana is known popularly as false graviola and originates from tropical America and can be cultivated throughout Brazil. There are no studies in the literature that associate A. montana with the metabolic profile of animals. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the effects of the consumption of pulp and leaves of this plant on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats. The animals, which were treated for 40 days, were divided into two control groups--treated with water via gavage and ad libitum, respectively, and two treated groups--one treated with leaf juice and the other with pulp juice of the fruit. Glycemia, lipids, and body weight were found to decrease and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels to increase in the animals treated with leaf juice. The group treated with pulp juice showed a reduction in lipids and augmented HDL-c. The use of A. montana may have beneficial effects in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and may thus contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
题名：Aldose reductase inhibitors from Litchi chinensis Sonn.
作者：Lee, SJ;Park, WH;Park, SD;Moon, HI
出处：J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem.2009V24N4:957-9
摘要：Diabetes is one of the major risk factors for cataract. Aldose reductase has been reported to play an important role in sugar-induced cataract. In this study, we conducted pharmacological investigations upon experimental rat lenses using extracts of the fruits of Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae). Of the extracts and organic fractions of L. chinensis tested, a MeOH extract and an EtOAc fraction were found to be potent inhibitors of rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) in vitro--their IC(50) values being 3.6 and 0.3 microg/mL, respectively. From the active EtOAc fraction, four minor compounds with diverse structural moieties were isolated and identified as D-mannitol (1), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), delphinidin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside-39,59-di-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), and delphinidin 3-O-beta- galactopyranoside-39-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4). Among these, 4 was found to be the most potent RLAR inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.23 microg/mL), and may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications.
主题词：Enzyme Inhibitors /酶抑制剂
题名：Beneficial effects of Annona squamosa extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
作者：Kaleem, M;Medha, P;Ahmed, QU;Asif, M;Bano, B
出处：Singapore Med J.2008V49N10:800-4
摘要：INTRODUCTION:The present study investigated the possible therapeutic effects of Annona squamosa (A. squamosa) extract on certain biochemical markers in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. METHODS:The effects of an aqueous extract of A. squamosa leaves on blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio, urea, uric acid and creatinine and the activities of diagnostic marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were examined in the plasma, liver and kidney tissues of control and experimental groups. RESULTS:Oral administration of A. squamosa (300 mg/kg) aqueous extract to diabetic rats for 30 days significantly reduced blood glucose, urea, uric acid and creatinine, but increased the activities of insulin, C-peptide, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and restored all marker enzymes to near control levels. CONCLUSION:The present results shown that A. squamosa extract has an antihyperglycaemic effect and consequently may alleviate liver and renal damage associated with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in rats.
题名：In vivo evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-lipidimic potential of Annona squamosa aqueous extract in Type 2 diabetic models.
作者：Gupta, RK;Kesari, AN;Diwakar, S;Tyagi, A;Tandon, V;Chandra, R;Watal, G
摘要：AIM OF THE STUDY:Diabetes is known to involve oxidative stress and changes in lipid metabolism. Many secondary plant metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress due to diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of water extract of Annona squamosa leaves on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile of animal models of type 2, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). MATERIAL AND METHODS:The plant material was extracted with boiling water for 2 h. Albino Wistar rats (n=24) were divided into four groups. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (ip) at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Animals of treated groups were given the dose of 350 mg/kg of the extract. The excised rat tissues were rinsed in ice-cold saline, blotted dry and weighed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:The results clearly suggest that the water extract of Annona squamosa leaves possessed antioxidant activity as shown by increased activities of scavenging enzymes, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and decrease in malondialdehyde levels present in various tissues. Administration of the extract also improved the lipid profile of the treated groups indicating thereby that the high levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol associated with diabetes can also be significantly managed with the extract.